Thursday, August 27, 2020
You Belong to Me is Mary Higgins Clark's fifteenth novel. It is about a youthful clinical therapist named Dr. Susan Chandler who has a radio television show. One day the subject of the show is forlorn ladies who vanish and who are later found dead. She raises one explicit instance of a woman named Regina Clausen. Another woman brings in the show and says she may have some data that may be valuable to the case, yet she needs to stay unknown. Dr. Chandler attempts to arrage a gathering with her, and she says she will presumably not have the option to come. That lady is pushed into a transport the following day and is genuinely harmed. The main observer that saw her get pushed is killed the following day. Dr. Chandler begins following the case, however every time she goes to converse with somebody that may have the option to give her some data, they are as of now dead. At long last, Susan is hot on the killer's path, yet doesn't understand that she will be the following casualty. The ki ller ends up being a person Susan has been dating. He attempts to choke out her and leaves her to pass on. Another specialist companion of Susan's has additionally been focusing on the case however, and he is stressed over something happening to Susan. He discovers her in her office before she chokes, and they can have the police capture the trouble maker before he does any more harm. You Belong to Me is a heavenly spine chiller from one of the class' unsurpassed greats, Mary Higgins Clark. (Book Browser 1) Almost all pundits had just great to state about Clark's work. No doube numerous perusers have at least one Mary Higgins Clark books set aside...and not on the grounds that she is one of the most well known huge print book writers or in light of the fact that her champions consistently come out OK toward the end. Almost certain this is on the grounds that her books fall into the great Gothic Genre. (Hoopes 1) Another creator remarked, These motivating books will contact every single heart. (Bread cook 2) This was certainly valid for You Belong to Me. Ms. Clark despite everything has the artfulness to furnish her bunch of fans with a top rate understanding experience. (Book Browser 1) One pundit remarked on Clark's riddle composing magazine-To me it appears to be increasingly intended for general store checkout lines. In any case, I thing it shows how famous sec rets are getting. (Detroit News 7) Story thoughts, in any case, are one thing Mary Higgins Clark has a lot of. (Hoopes 2) Mary Higgins Clark has carried on with an uncommon life. She made herself into something advantageous from essentially nothing, simply because she buckled down for what she needed. She demonstrated that you can do anything you desire, on the off chance that you need it awful enough. Clark unquestionably is an image of character, regard, and determination, and her hits are evidence of it, if not her status as a most loved American creator.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Lucy Burns Was a Militant Activist for Women's Votes Lucy Burns assumed a key job in the activist wing of the American testimonial development and in the last win of the nineteenth Amendment. Occupation: Activist, educator, researcher Dates: July 28, 1879 - December 22, 1966 Foundation, Family Father: Edward BurnsSiblings: Fourth of seven Instruction Parker Collegiate Institute, previously Brooklyn Female Academy, a private academy in BrooklynVassar College, graduated 1902Graduate work at Yale University, Universities of Bonn, Berlin, and Oxford Progressively About Lucy Burns Lucy Burns was conceived in Brooklyn, New York, in 1879. Her Irish Catholic family was strong of training, including for young ladies, and Lucy Burns moved on from Vassar College in 1902. Quickly filling in as an English instructor at an open secondary school in Brooklyn, Lucy Burns went through quite a long while in worldwide investigation in Germany and afterward in England, contemplating semantics and English. Womens Suffrage in the United Kingdom In England, Lucy Burns met the Pankhurst: Emmeline Pankhurst and girls Christabel and Sylvia. She got engaged with the more activist wing of the development, with the Pankhursts were related, and sorted out by the Womens Social and Political Union (WPSU). In 1909, Lucy Burns composed a testimonial procession in Scotland. She talked openly for testimonial, regularly wearing a little American banner lapel pin. Captured oftentimes for her activism, Lucy Burns dropped her examinations to work all day for the testimonial development as a coordinator for the Womens Social and Political Union. Consumes found out much about activism, and much, specifically, about the press and advertising as a major aspect of a testimonial crusade. Lucy Burns and Alice Paul While at a police headquarters in London after one WPSU occasion, Lucy Burns met Alice Paul, another American member in the fights there. The two became companions and associates in the testimonial development, starting to consider what may be the consequence of carrying these progressively aggressor strategies to the American development, since quite a while ago slowed down in its battle for testimonial. The American Womens Suffrage Movement Consumes moved back to the United States in 1912. Consumes and Alice Paul joined the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), at that point headed by Anna Howard Shaw, turning out to be pioneers in the Congressional Committee inside that association. The two introduced a proposition to the 1912 show, pushing for considering whatever gathering was in power answerable for passing womens testimonial, making the gathering the objective of resistance by professional testimonial voters on the off chance that they didn't. They likewise upheld for government activity on testimonial, where the NAWSA had adopted a state-by-state strategy. Indeed, even with the assistance of Jane Addams, Lucy Burns and Alice Paul neglected to get the endorsement of their arrangement. The NAWSA additionally casted a ballot not to help the Congressional Committee monetarily, however they accepted a proposition for a testimonial walk during Wilsons 1913 introduction, one which was notoriously assaulted and 200 marchers were harmed and which took open consideration back to the testimonial development. Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage So Burns and Paul framed the Congressional Union - still piece of the NAWSA (and including the NAWSA name), yet independently sorted out and financed. Lucy Burns was chosen as one of the administrators of the new association. By April of 1913, NAWSA requested that the Congressional Union no longer utilize the NAWSA in the title. The Congressional Union was then conceded as a helper of NAWSA. At the 1913 NAWSA show, Burns and Paul again made recommendations for radical political activity: with Democrats in charge of the White House and Congress, the proposition would focus on all occupants in the event that they neglected to help government womens testimonial. President Wilsons activities, specifically, enraged a large number of the suffragists: first he embraced testimonial, at that point neglected to remember testimonial for his State of the Union location, at that point pardoned himself from meeting with delegates of the testimonial development, lastly eased off from his help of government testimonial activity for state-by-state choices. The working relationship of the Congressional Union and NAWSA was not effective, and on February 12, 1914, the two associations authoritatively split. NAWSA stayed resolved to state-by-state testimonial, including supporting a national established revision that would have made it easier to present lady testimonial votes in the rest of the states. Lucy Burns and Alice Paul considered such to be as half measures, and the Congressional Union went to work in 1914 to overcome Democrats in Congressional decisions. Lucy Burns went to California to sort out ladies voters there. In 1915, Anna Howard Shaw had resigned from the NAWSA administration and Carrie Chapman Catt had her spot, yet Catt additionally had confidence in working state-by-state and in working with the gathering in power, not against it. Lucy Burns became editorial manager of the Congressional Unions paper, The Suffragist, and kept on working for progressively government activity and with more militancy. In December of 1915, an endeavor to bring the NAWSA and the Congressional Union back together fizzled. Picketing, Protesting, and Jail Consumes and Paul at that point started attempting to shape a National Womans Party (NWP), with an establishing show in June of 1916, with the essential objective of passing a government testimonial change. Consumes applied her abilities as a coordinator and marketing expert and was vital to crafted by the NWP. The National Womans Party started a crusade of picketing outside the White House. Many, including Burns, restricted the passage of the United States into World War I, and would not quit picketing for the sake of enthusiasm and national solidarity. Police captured the protestors, again and again, and Burns was among those sent to Occoquan Workhouse for dissenting. In prison, Burns kept on arranging, mirroring the yearning strikes of the British testimonial specialists with which Burns was experienced. She likewise attempted to sort out the detainees in proclaiming themselves political detainees and requesting rights all things considered. Consumes was captured for all the more fighting after she was discharged from prison, and she was in Occoquan Workhouse during the scandalous Night of Terror when the ladies detainees were exposed to fierce treatment and declined clinical assistance. After the detainees reacted with a yearning strike, the jail authorities started forcibly feeding the ladies, including Lucy Burns, who was held somewhere near five gatekeepers and a taking care of cylinder constrained through her noses. Wilson Responds The exposure around the treatment of the imprisoned ladies at long last moved the Wilson organization to act. The Anthony Amendment (named for Susan B. Anthony), which would give ladies the vote broadly, was passed by the House of Representatives in 1918, however it flopped in the Senate soon thereafter. Consumes and Paul drove the NWP in continuing White House fights - and more jailings - just as in attempting to help the appointment of all the more expert testimonial up-and-comers. In May of 1919, President Wilson called an exceptional meeting of Congress to think about the Anthony Amendment. The House passed it in May and the Senate followed toward the beginning of June. At that point the testimonial activists, remembering for the National Womens Party, worked for state approval, at last winning endorsement when Tennessee decided in favor of the correction in August 1920. Retirement Lucy Burns resigned from open life and activism. She was disenchanted at the numerous ladies, particularly wedded ladies, who didn't work for testimonial, and at those she thought were not adequately aggressor on the side of testimonial. She resigned to Brooklyn, living with two of her additionally unmarried sisters, and brought up the girl of another of her sisters who kicked the bucket not long after labor. She was dynamic in her Roman Catholic Church. She kicked the bucket in Brooklyn in 1966. Religion: Roman Catholic Associations: Congressional Union for Women Suffrage, National Womans Party
Friday, August 21, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"All Quiet in the Western FrontÃ¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the film, Ã¢â¬Å"All Quiet in the Western Front,Ã¢â¬ Paul is a normal eighteen-year-old male who enrolls in the Army and is sent to battle in WWI, which changes his perspectives and makes him a grown-up. Everyone in PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s old neighborhood is strong of Paul and his companions enrolling think it is an incredible chance to have the option to battle in the war. At essential preparing, they are indicated what military life resembles from their recruit instructor who treats him and his companions unimaginably unpleasant. Paul gets back, he has an entirely unexpected point of view and his prior way of life. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Paul and twenty of his cohorts enrolled in the Army to go battle in WWI. Paul was then near his loved ones. One of his high scho...
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
New Step by Step Roadmap for Framing Essay Photography Samples Finding the Best Framing Essay Photography Samples As the photographer, it's your responsibility to choose when, where, and the way to use the frames that surround you. One doesn't need to look far to locate an inspirational quote about photography. Photography has now taken the type of narrative and interpretive images that could be closely associated with the human sentiments. Julie Waterhouse Photography Find the solution. Framing might be symmetrical, or it might not. It is not a necessary ingredient for every photograph. A photo is essentially a record of the light conditions at a definite period in time and space. Based on the kind of photography that you'll be shooting, research for some expert photos and the way they're captured. If you would like to take shots much like those shots taken by professional photographers, this expert photography shot list is best for you. Make certain that you aren't missing any essential shots throughout the use of this very simple photography shot list. Life, Death and Framing Essay Photography Samples Its usefulness for a framework does not rely on other frameworks. Framing is a significant topic as it may have a big influence and thus the idea of framing expanded to organizations also. The idea of framing is connected to the agenda-setting tradition but expands the research by focusing on the gist of the issues at hand as opposed to on a specific topic. A general summary of the idea of media framing is also offered. This aspect is also evident from the simple fact that a number of the visual elements of the photo are partially visible. For instance, in the area of commerce, a photograph can play an important part in influencing consumers or clients or forming the standing of a specific brand or company. These still images may be observed from several perspectives and are interpreted in various ways. 1 particular image can be adopted by one society or ideology but it might be taboo for a different group of individuals. The Good, the Bad and Framing Essay Photography Samples You need to work on your feet and find various ways to capture the identical person going through this shift. It is the exact same way like life. It doesn't give anything myth it's never shocking or adventurous it's just taken to make desire to have sex. Actually, there are several times where framing will do more damage than good to an image. Photographs have an enormous emotional effect on people, making them experience particular form of emotion, so they have a specific desire to purchase something, go somewhere, or look in a sure way. Folks may be used to frame things and other individuals. We identify the many different frames used by several media houses in the united states and compare and contrast them. Artificial frames can be unbelievably abundant in urban environments. Have a good idea of what you need to accomplish, and create it as though you were teaching somebody else. It's easy that you edit the list and include only the ones which are important for the kind of photography that you're working. Critics always debates on the subject of whether photography is actually an art or only a mechanical procedure. At this point you have a group of individuals sharing and liking your images. The Most Popular Framing Essay Photography Samples These frames are individually constructed to size, and after that finished so that there aren't any visible corner seams. For example, the contrast between the bright yellow color and the remainder of the image makes my image stand out compared to the remainder of the image components. The exact same mat is raised over the image and creates depth. Search for shapes in play places. The simple yet comprehensive frame is ideal for the fashion of the piece and complemented the particulars of the bridge. If you would like to get fancy, you can use more than 1 element at a moment. To begin with, you would want to locate a topic that you're interested in. This article is all about framing in composition. For example, a photograph of a lovely beach is not going to demonstrate the litter present behind the camera. Unlike some folks, I indeed want my photos to appear unique, lively and a tiny bit professional. These portraits and group photographs are a terrific means to practise and get started building up a network of individuals. There are a lot of opportunities on playgrounds. Although smaller in proportion, its strong color gives it a great deal of visual weight. There's also a glass jar and a couple items placed behind it still in addition to the fridge. The great number of colors that emanates from the sunlight is captured with the aid of science. To begin with, from the photo, one has the capability to appreciate a feeling of depth whereby a number of the visual parts of the photo show up on the foreground while some stay in the background meaning that some are in front while others behind them.
Friday, May 15, 2020
Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1330 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/04/22 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Happiness Essay Did you like this example? It was one of those moments when time stands still. One of those moments so important your mind has to pause, focus, and capture everything because of its occurrence. One of the moments you know you will look back on fondly in years ahead. One of the moments that make you reflect on how lucky you are to be who you are, where you are, doing what you are doing, with the people you are with. I was going to get coffee. It was summer, naturally. I was driving down the infamous one-way street in my seasonal beach town, the breeze drawing the music from my car into the ears of the surrounding drivers at a red light. I was with some of the most important people in my life. The light turns. I press the gas and I smile. The fact that this reflective moment was not a graduation, birthday or a major life milestone may surprise some, but it is in these tiny moments, as small as a typical summer sunset drive or a swim in the ocean when I catch myself in the act. I catch myself being happy. Happiness is not feeling great all of the time. It is not accumulating large sums of money. It is not conditional on our other accomplishments as human beings. And happiness is certainly not something to be put off or postponed. However, happiness is more than a fleeting moment of joy or smiling to yourself. In fact, I find that smiling is the realization that you are happy. As debatable, complex, and sought after the concept of happiness may be, the idea is different for everyone, as is the process of reaping its rewards. Happiness is a goal and a way of life most work towards every day, it does not simply come to be. It is a process. One can work towards happiness knowing they have lived a worthwhile life to their own level of satisfaction. This is where the process diverges because each individual holds themselves to different standards on a large variety of things (Haybron, 36). This is the idea of life satisfaction and it varies greatly because each individual decides what they need to accomplish in their given circumstances in order to be satisfied with their life. We set the bar for ourselves regarding our level of personal satisfaction but happiness is something we can constantly be pursuing. I have found that happiness, more so than anything else, is a practice in itself. Similarly to how professional athletes are constantly working towards the goal of bettering themselves, if an individual decides they want to be happy, they have to work on it consistently. I can recall a time when I knew I was not, in my terms, happy. I would have days when I would be more content than others, but I was not happy with where I was in my life. I was also not focused on trying to change that fact. I would soon come to the realization that I can just as easily strive for the meaning and positivity I was lacking, as stay comfortable in my unhappiness. This practice is a process, a gradual one. Some days will be easier than others to pursue happiness, but it is nec essary to remember why we started. There must be some light at the end of the tunnel if so many people are racing towards it. In few words, happiness is the continuous practice of living a meaningful life composed of purpose and positivity. To live meaningfully is to live with purpose. I believe it is essential for happiness to have a life driven by a purpose, goal, or simply an interest to keep ourselves engaged and living a worthwhile life. Even if this purpose is ever-changing, our meaning can be equated with the fire within each of us that gives us the motivation to, like positive psychologist Martin Seligman states, be all you can be (PAGE). Hense, this meaning can be created or found. Meaning and purpose is defined differently by everyone who seeks it. It is the value we place on certain things. To one, meaning can be found in astrophysics while another can place purpose in volunteer work and literature. The commonality, regardless of the purpose, is that each individual wh o has found what is meaningful to them is working towards something, being productive, and moving forward. They are connecting with something bigger than the self and will ultimately be rewarded with success (Haybron, 102). Throughout my life, I have found purpose in self-confidence. Once I made the decision to become a person who embodies confidence, I was shocked to see how many other girls were also struggling to discover their own. Soon after making the monumental connection with the organization I AM THAT GIRL, I started a local chapter at my high school, where we discussed meaningful issues such as confidence, image, and worth, that mattered to a group of twenty-five like-minded girls. This is when I experienced first-hand the necessity to make connections with people and things that matter (Haybron, 71) The relationships I built from my club were immeasurable and helped me recognize who I am and who I want to become moving forward. They were built on trust and security, tw o things that Haybron dictates as the most important aspects of any relationship (69). The relationships we have in life are fascinating because we choose who we associate with. This is why it is so essential to surround ourselves with people who uplift us and push us to be our absolute best, not tear us down. Meaning is placed in a relationship if both feel mutually like they are benefitting. If a relationship does not feel good, that means it is not right and is stalling your progress towards a life of happiness. Just as important as practicing a meaningful life is practicing a life of positivity. Positivity is a mindset, one you have made the deliberate decision to take on. Being positive does not equate to smiling all the time or having the most outgoing personality, although they may follow suit. More than seeing the glass half full, positivity is the optimistic search for the good in people, situations, and in life; focusing on what is present, not on what is absent. I beli eve that simply thinking positive thoughts and putting good out into the world creates some of the value and meaning we place on things that was earlier discussed. It is no wonder making a positive first impression has so much stress placed upon it, because people do not remember what you say, they remember how you make them feel. I have been asked on more than one occasion about why I am so positive, but my response is often, How could I not be?. Positivity has helped me stay focused and grounded in my own reality and reminded me of what is important, even when things would not always go my way. Positivity is a way of looking at the world, and when we put good into the world, it is often replicated in the feelings of warmth, comfort, or gratitude that Seligman speaks of (17). Being positive can undoubtedly be difficult though, especially in unfortunate and tragic situations that are out of our control. However, as humans, we must do our best to maintain a positive outlook into t he world, as it will ultimately guide us in the practice of happiness. There is little sense in saying happiness is easily grasped. In some ways, we will constantly be moving towards it by way of the purpose and positivity we place on our own lives. Regardless of how satisfied or unsatisfied we are with our current lives, who is to say we cannot make the decision to start living with purpose, meaning, and positivity to pursue a life of happiness? You might just catch yourself in the act the next time you are on your way for coffee. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Happiness is a Goal of Life" essay for you Create order
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Diet, micronutrients and nutrition supplements have long been studied and utilized in the maintenance of skin health, beauty and integrity. The skin is the largest organ of the body, consisting of three layers: the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis, providing a protective layer from the external environment.1 The dermis and hypodermis contain the cutaneous vascular system, allowing for deliverance of nutrients to the skin, temperature regulation, immune function and wound healing. Manifestations of poor skin health can be caused by various nutritionally related conditions, such as vitamin deficiencies, malnutrition or obesity, as well as other disease states that can negatively impact normal skin physiology. Nutrition as a treatment or causation of certain skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and non-melanoma skin cancer has become a controversial area of study.2 One of the most disputed controversies in the history of dermatological research has involved the role of nutrition in acne development. It is estimated that greater than 17 million Americans suffer from acne, resulting in negative psychological and emotional impacts.3 The disease effects between 80-90% of adolescents in America, yet is also prevalent in many adults, with the average age of treatment being 24. Since acne often persists into adulthood, hormonal imbalances and endocrine signaling during puberty cannot be the only cause.4 Due to the frequent occurrence of acne in the United States, many health careShow MoreRelatedVitamin Supplements And The Body Needs915 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto maintain equilibrium? Vitamin supplements can be found in the form of a liquid, pill, or powder. Individuals can obtain the vitamins through a prescription from their physician or over the counter. The supplements help the body receive the vitamins that they are not obtaining through their daily diet. To receive the nourishment the body needs, there are a variety of supplements that can be obtained.Vitamin supp lements are beneficial because they provide nutrition that the body needs, treats differentRead MoreNutrition : The Primary Goal Of Sports Nutrition1260 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOverview of Sports Nutrition The primary goal of sports nutrition is to achieve energy balance by ensuring an adequate caloric intake in the correct proportion of macronutrients (American Dietetic Association, 2000). These recommendations coupled with the need for quality training and adequate rest are the cornerstones for optimal athletic performance (Earnest, 2002). 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With so much emphasis placed on sports nowadays, there has been a dramatic increase in the research and development of the perfect nutrition plan a sportsperson may need. It is a well- documented fact that nutrition is fundamental to the athletic performance of a professional athlete.Read MoreThe relevance of nutrition in health Essay896 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Ã¢â¬Å"Optimum nutrition is needed for optimum healthÃ¢â¬ Nutrition can be described as the science of consuming and utilizing foods in a natural medicinal way so as to provide the human body with optimum health by taking care of the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s dietary needs. Nutritional science studies how the human body catabolizes and anabolizes certain groups of foods to see how they affect the repair and creation of new and old cells. 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These recommendations coupled with the need for quality training and adequate rests are the cornerstones for optimal athletic performance (Earnest, 2002). Achieving energy balance is crucial for the athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to consistently train at the intense levels needed for athleticRead MoreEffects Of Obesity On Children s Behavior997 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconsidered in this topic is how oneÃ¢â¬â¢s overall diet may have an effect on ADHD. This notion is definitely reasonable when considering how various diets, which tend to accompany socioeconomical and geographic-cultural factors, may significantly contribute towards the prevalence of the disorder in different areas of the world. More exclusively, this factor focuses on the possibility that certain nutrient deficiencies, which result from one Ã¢â¬â¢s comprehensive diet, may have a contributing effect on ADHD. ManyRead MoreNutrition And The Body s Dietary Needs Essay1075 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages According to the World Health Organization nutrition is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the intake of food, considered in relation to the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s dietary needs.Ã¢â¬ This topic is often overlooked by many Americans and its relationship with a healthy life is often never understood. From before life begins in the embryonic stages to the final stages of life nutrition plays a vital role in the life a person. Poor nutrition can be caused by over indulgence or deprivation of essential nutrients and can lead to a decreased immuneRead MoreThe Importance Of Nutrition On Health, Health And Well Being Of Our Population Essay1093 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesImportance of Nutrition in Health Madison Aynes University of Arkansas Fort Smith NUTR 25230E1 According to the World Health Organization nutrition is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the intake of food, considered in relation to the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s dietary needs.Ã¢â¬ This topic is often overlooked by many Americans and its relationship with a healthy life is often never understood. From before life begins in the embryonic stages to the final stages of life nutrition plays a vital role in the life a person. Poor nutrition can be
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The diversity of animal life on Earth is astounding. Each animal has a unique body plan which allows it to survive and adapt to its given surroundings. With such an abundance of species, classifying animals into different categories is necessary. At first the diversity of animals can be overwhelming, but after further research and observation, many likenesses appear. These similarities become the basis for taxonomists, the biologists who specialize in classifying animals, to organize and bring order to the animal kingdom. Animals are classified into categories called taxa and are sorted according to their phylogeny (evolutionary history), body plan and similarity of characteristics. There are seven principle levels that organisms can be placed into: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. All animals are in the Kingdom Animalia. As you move from species to kingdom, the animals that are grouped together share fewer and fewer characteristics at each succeeding level. The next level after Kingdom is Phyla, which is the main focus of the lab today. Even though there are approximately thirty-five phyla within the animal kingdom, 98 percent of all animals are classified into eight of them. To get even more specific, seven of the eight phyla are invertebrates. Invertebrates comprise most of the animal kingdom, with almost 75 percent of all animals on earth being insects. They out number humans by a million to one! From Phylum, animals are then broken down into more specific categories: class, order, family, genus, species. For example, a shark, a bird, and a human are all in the Phylum Chordata. So, what similarities do these animals have? Taxonomists would agree that all these animals have similar internal skeletons. However, these animals would not be grouped in the same Class. This process would continue until the animal is classified all the way to species type. Keep in mind that sub-phyla, do exist and even though most animals are place into these eight phyla, not only are there visible difference amongst the eight phyla, but also within each phyla. The following description of each phylum are from the Ã¢â¬Å"Shape of LifeÃ¢â¬ guide (Sea studios Foundation, 2002). Purpose Students will use the descriptions of the phyla (provided) to create a phylum key. By organizing characteristics into eight phyla, they will have a guide to assist them in determining which phylum is represented by preserved specimen presented to them. Materials Phyla Descriptions Characteristic Cards Answer Sheet TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s transparency (answer key) Preserved specimen from each of the eight phyla Procedure 1. Review the phyla descriptions provided, or use your notes/test to review the key characteristics from each phylum. 2. Each card contains a main characteristic of one of the eight main phyla. Each group/student will cut apart the cards and try to arrange them appropriately on their answer sheet. The end product is a comparison of the main characteristics of each phyla. 3. Once the answer sheet has been completed, ask your teacher to check your work. 4. When you have correctly assembled your answer sheet you may glue the characteristic cards down onto the answer sheet. Porifera Sponges The Phylum Porifera consists only of sponges, which is unique since these animals are entirely aquatic; with 98% found only in marine environments and a small percentage found in freshwater lakes and streams. Sponges are considered the oldest and of the animal phyla. Translated from Latin, Porifera means Ã¢â¬Å"pore bearer. Ã¢â¬ Sponges play an important role in aquatic ecosystems, acting to filter particles out of the water especially bacteria. Sponges can be found living with coral reefs. The surface of a sponge is covered with a skin which is one cell thick. This skin is penetrated by numerous small pores and a few larger openings. These larger openings are the entrances and exits for a complex system of canals and chambers through which the sponge pumps a current of water. The body of a sponge between this system of canals is a loose assemblage of cells that secrets a supporting skeleton of collagen fibers and mineral spicules (glass or calcium carbonate) and carries out the process of growth, repair, nourishment, and reproduction. Sponges can filter/clean water at a rate of their entire volume in less than a minute? As the sponge pumps in water at this amazing rate, it captures tiny food items as small as a single micron in diameter. Choanocytes are specialized flagellated cells, also called collar cells, that allow sponges to pump the water. Since sponges are filter feeders they often have to filter over a ton of water to secure just a single ounce of food? Sponges reproduce asexually by fragmentation or budding, sexually (eggs and sperm), or hermaphroditic, a single species with both male and female gametes. Their commercial importance includes use as bath sponges as well as being tested for possible anti-cancer drugs or antibiotics. Sponges provide a micro habitat for other organisms and they aid in cleaning the water. Since sponges are considered the simplest of the all animal phyla, they are important subjects for analyzing the evolution of animals. Studies indicate that the Phylum Porifera is at the base of the animal tree of life. Features: * Asymmetrical * Organized as an assemblage of different kinds of specialized cells, e. g. collar cells * No tissues * Skeleton lacking or made of spicules Cnidaria Jellyfish, Corals, Anenomes, Hydra The phylum cnidaria includes such animals as jellyfish, corals, sea pens, sea anemones, and hydras. This phylum contains the most venomous marine creature. It is the Australian box jellyfish. It is known to kill more people than sharks, crocodiles and stonefish combined. It can cause shock and heart failure within minutes. Sea turtles prey upon the box jellyfish but are not affected by the venom. Most cnidaria alternate between two different body forms in their life: the free-swimming form, called the medusa, and the stationary form, called the polyp. Both body types follow the same basic plan. They are radially symmetrical with three layers of tissue. Each species has a single opening that serves as both the mouth and the anus. That shared opening is usually surrounded by a ring of tentacles, allowing the animal to capture prey in all directions. Cnidarians have a defined top and bottom and two distinct layers of tissue: an epidermis outer layer and an internal gastrodermis. Between these tissue layers is a layer called the mesoglea. In the form of a medusa, the mesoglea is an elastic, clear jelly with fibers made of protein called collagen. The mesoglea aids in locomotion by elastically recoiling in response to muscle contractions. CnidariansÃ¢â¬â¢ muscles and nerves are located at the base of the tissue layers. The internal space, surrounded by the layers of tissue and mesoglea, is the gut or gastrovascular cavity. In order to capture prey, cnidarians have stinging cells. Located in their tentacles, these stinging cells, called cnidocytes, contain tiny, often toxic harpoons, called nematocysts. Triggered by touch or certain chemicals, nematocysts fire out of the cnidocyte housing at lightning speed. Some hydra can fire these harpoons with an accelerated force equal to 40,000 times the acceleration of gravity. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s 10,000 times the acceleration force of a space shuttle. Once the nematocyst hits it mark, usually lethal poisons are injected into the prey. The combination of defined tissues, muscles, nerves and a gut allowed ancestral cnidarians to be the first animals on the planet to show animated behavior. The named Cnidaria comes from the Latin word meaning Ã¢â¬Å"nettle. Ã¢â¬ Features: * Two tissue layers with nerve and muscle tissues * Nematocysts structures contained in special cells called cnidocytes or cnidoblasts that can act in both offense and defense * Two main life forms free-swimming medusa (e. g. jellyfish) or stationary polyp (e. g. anenome) Platyhelminthes Flatworms This particular phylum is one of the lesser-known groups and includes such animals as freshwater planaria, colorful marine polycads and parasitic tapeworms and flukes. The name Platyhelminthes in Latin means Ã¢â¬Å"flat worm. Ã¢â¬ Fossilized worm tracks in the early Cambrian period (over 550 million years ago) hint at the origin of this body plan. While the actual classification of Platyhelminthes remains controversial, flatworms share distinctive features. They are bilaterally symmetrical with a defined head and tail region and a centralized nervous system containing a brain and nerve cords. Clusters of light-sensitive cells make up what are called eyespots The head region of the flatworm also contains other sense organs, which are connected to the flatwormÃ¢â¬â¢s simple brain. Like most animals, except sponges and cnidarians, flatworms possess three tissue layers making them triploblastic. The middle tissue layer, called the mesoderm, helps form true organs, including reproductive organs, such as ovaries, testes, and a penis. Flatworms are hermaphroditic and capable of sexual and asexual reproduction. They are, as their name implies, flat. They have no circulatory system or body cavity (coelom), but they do have an excretory and digestive system. Passive diffusion through the skin supplies oxygen to their body parts. The highly branched gastrovascular (gut) cavity distributes nutrients to their cells. Most species of flatworms are parasitic having evolved protective skin coverings and elaborate attachment mechanisms to allow them to live inside their hosts. Features: * Bilaterally symmetrical with a head and tail * Centralized nervous system * Three tissue layers * No coelom (body cavity), no circulatory system and no hard skeleton Annelida Polychaetes, Earthworms, Leeches Cambrian Explosion The Cambrian period began approximately 543 million years ago. Of the eight major phyla, two were known from fossils of this time Porifera and Cnidaria. Shortly thereafter, a profuse radiation of fossils representing the other animal body plans occurred over a relatively brief span of about 10 million years (by some estimates, 530 million years ago. ) The rest of the animal phyla all evolved during, or shortly after, this evolutionary explosion of new life forms in the Cambrian period. The Annelida body plan is equal in complexity to that of chordates. Far from being lowly worms, these creatures are impressively powerful and capable animals. Annelids are bilaterally symmetrical. They also contain three tissue layers and a true body cavity) or coelom. The coelom surrounds a one-way muscular digestive tract that runs from the mouth to the anus and includes a pharynx, intestine, and other structures. Annelids have a closed-circulatory system with capillaries connecting to arteries and veins, as well as a segmented central nervous system that includes a simple brain located in the head region. One of the distinctive traits of an annelid is that it has many segments, or rings, that comprise its bo4 In fact, Annelida means Ã¢â¬Å"little ringÃ¢â¬ in Latin. Each segment has a number of bristles, called setae, which help the worm move. The evolution of segmentation is an important step for the annelids because it provides an opportunity for separate regions of the body to specialize in different tasks. The fluid-filled coelom was another important innovation for annelids, as it insulated the gut from body locomotor muscles and provided a hydrostatic fluid skeleton against which the muscle system could work quite effectively. Features: Elongate and bilateral with segmented true body cavity (coelom) * Complete circulatory system with capillaries, arteries and veins * Continuous gut running from mouth to anus with own musculature * Bristle-like structures, called setae, projecting from body (except in leeches) Arthropoda Crustaceans, Spiders, Millipedes, Centipedes, Insects Of all the phyla in the animal kingdom, Arthropoda is by far the largest and most diverse. All arthropods have segmented bodies and are covered in a hard, yet flexible, protective armor called an exoskeleton. Their body muscles attach to the inside of the exoskeleton. The name Arthropoda means Ã¢â¬Å"jointed footÃ¢â¬ and refers to their jointed appendages. In order to grow, arthropods must shed their chiton-filled exoskeleton periodically, engaging in an activity called molting. When an arthropod passes through specific developmental stages during molting, it is said to by metamorphosing. Radical changes in body design can come from metamorphosis. For example, an arthropod like a dragonfly can start life in a pond as a swimming larva and then metamorphose into a completely different-looking, winged adult. Arthropods, like all animals, first appeared in the sea, yet became the first animal group to invade land and even take to the skies. (Our direct ancestors, the chordates, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t invade land for another 100 million years. ) Once on land, arthropods adapted superbly to the new environment. The incredible diversity and success of the arthropods can be attributed to their extraordinarily adaptable body plan. A key feature of this plan lies in the development of myriad types of appendages (antennae, claws, wings, shields, mouthparts) that allowed arthropods to exploit nearly every niche on Earth. Features: * Hard exoskeleton made of chitin and protein * Possess numerous jointed appendages and a segmented body * Must molt to grow Mollusca Clams, Snails, Slugs, Nautilus, Octopus Animals in this phylum, including chitons, snails, slugs, clams, squid, and octopus, show an amazing degree of diversity. All molluscs have soft bodies. In fact, the name Mollusc means Ã¢â¬Å"softÃ¢â¬ in Latin. Most molluscs are covered by a hard shell, which is secreted by a layer of tissue called the mantle that overlays the internal organs of the mollusc. Molluscs also have a strong muscular foot, which is used for movement or grasping. They have gills, a mouth and an anus. One feature unique to molluscs is a file-like, rasping tool called a radula. This structure allows them to scrape algae and other food of rocks and even to drill into prey or catch fish. The diversity of molluscs demonstrates how a basic body plan can evolve into a variety of different forms that allow survival in specific environments. For example, the hard shell in a land-dwelling snail is relatively large and serves to protect the animal. In the fast-swimming squid, however, the shell has been reduced to a small pen-shaped structure. Features: * Rasping organ called a radula- present in all groups except bivalves and Aplacophora * Muscular foot- used for locomotion and other tasks * A sheath of tissue called the mantle that covers body and can secrete the shell (if there is one) * A mantle cavity that houses the gills or lungs * A calcium shell present in most mollusks- some mollusks have greatly reduced their shells, e. g. , squid; while others have completely lost it, e. g. , slugs, nudibranchs, and octopus Echinodermata Sea stars, Sea Lilies, Sea Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Brittle Stars There are about 6000 living species belonging to the phylum Echinodermata. The bodies of echinoderms are made of tough, calcium-based plates that are often spiny and covered by a thin skin. This tough body is how they get their name- Echinoderms (echino-spiny, derm-skin). Echinoderms are exclusively marine animals. This phylum includes sea stars, sea lilies, urchins, sea cucumbers, sand dollars and brittle stars. Echinoderms do not have a bilateral body plan with a distinct head and tail. Instead, many Echinoderms begin life as bilateral larvae and later develop into radial organisms with five-part symmetry. The mouths of most Echinoderms are located on the underside of their bodies. Echinoderms move, feed, and respire with a unique water-vascular system ending in tube feet. Sea stars use their tube feet to slowly pry open clams, mussels, or other prey. Some sea stars can even extrude their stomachs from their bodies and insert them into the tiny openings between the two shells of bivalves and digest the soft parts inside. An interesting ability of both sea stars and sea urchins is that of regeneration. If body parts such as legs, tube feet, and spines are lost to a predator they can grow back. While most echinoderms are either stationary or slow-moving, methodical animals, they are nevertheless prominent members of the marine environment. Features: * Internal skeleton made of little calcium plates * Five-part symmetry * Special fluid-filled system (called a water vascular system) that operates the tube feet Chordata Tunicates, Lancelets, Vertebrates (including Amphibians, Reptiles, Mammals) The Phylum Chordata includes a wide range of animals from tunicates that look superficially more like sponges, to vertebrates, including fishes, frogs, snakes, birds, and humans. Despite this diversity virtually all chordates share certain features at some point in their lives. These include a stiffening rod, called a notochord, that in many members (e. g. the vertebrates) is later replaced by a bony, vertebral column. In most adult vertebrates, the notochord only remains as a disk between the vertebrae. Another chordate feature is a hollow nerve structure called a dorsal nerve cord that in most members becomes the spinal cord and brain. Also included in the chordate body plan are structures called pharyngeal gill slits, or clefts. These skeletal elements function as jaws and jaw supports, and in some animals take on a variety of other functions. The most conspicuous group of Chordates is the subphylum Vertebrata. Vertebrates include a wide range of animals, from the jawless fishes to the more familiar mammals and birds. Unlike arthropods that wear their skeletons on the outside, chordates have their skeletons on the inside. This design, as in the echinoderms, allows chordates to grow continuously with no need for molting. Such a robust internal skeleton helps vertebrates grow to the size of an African elephant, or support the powerful movements of swimming fish. Another major innovation in the evolution of vertebrates is the appearance of jaws and a bony skull. A quadrupling of genetic information and the appearance of a special population of migratory cells, called neural crest are correlated with the emergence of the all-important vertebrate jaws and skulk. These new features offered a host of new opportunities. Vertebrates fall into two main categories: fishes and a group of animals called tetrapods. Tetrapods developed from a distinct lineage of fishes that possessed unique internal fin bones. These structures eventually aided in supporting the weight of animals on land and laid the foundation for arms and legs and the first amphibians. The development of a shelled, water-retaining egg, the amniotic egg, enabled tetrapods to remain on land and develop into reptiles, birds, and mammals. From an ancient reptilian ancestor, two groups of animals, mammals and birds, independently developed the capacity to maintain constant body temperature.